2018 Ohio Education
by the Numbers

2018 Ohio Education by the Numbers - Photo of student at chalkboard

The Thomas B. Fordham Institute is pleased to present Ohio Education By The Numbers. This website provides an impartial, fact-based overview of K-12 education in the Buckeye State. We hope these data will help to inform conversations about improving education throughout the state. If you have ideas on how this could be improved and made more useful to you, write to us at (251) 967-8287.

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Student
Enrollment
Student Enrollment - Photo of students in classroom setting

OHIO PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS Ohio has nearly 1.7 million public school students of varying backgrounds and characteristics.

Ohio student characteristics table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: Public school enrollment statistics (for this table and the following ones) include charter school students, but do not include voucher students, pupils attending non-public schools, or home schooled students.

PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT BY GRADE LEVEL Ohio has approximately 130,000 public school students per grade level.

Ohio students grade level table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17).

PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT TREND BY RACE OR ETHNICITY Overall public school enrollment has been trending downward, though some racial and ethnic subgroups have increased.

Ohio students public school enrollment by race or ethnicity chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, 224-470-7136 (SY 2005-06 to 2016-17). The chart displays the spring part of the school year, a convention used throughout this guide. Note: The percentages refer to the percent change from 2006 to 2017. For display purposes, several race/ethnic subgroups are omitted. From 2006 to 2017, the multiracial subgroup increased from 46,698 to 88,803 (+80%); Asian/Pacific Islander subgroup increased from 24,029 to 39,521 (+64%); the American Indian or Alaskan Native subgroup declined from 2,470 to 2,079 (-16%).

PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT TREND BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS Students identified as either economically disadvantaged or English language learner have increased, while pupils identified as gifted or with a disability have slightly declined.

Ohio students public school enrollment trend by selected characteristics chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (979) 657-5308 (SY 2005-06 to 2016-17). Note: Through the federal Community Eligibility Program, a certain number of students are deemed economically disadvantaged, even though they do not meet the income guidelines for federal subsidized lunch (less than or equal to 185% of federal poverty level) which typically leads to identification as economically disadvantaged. For more on subsidized meals eligibility, see U.S. Department of Agriculture, Income Eligibility Guidelines and Ohio Department of Education, Community Eligibility Provision.

CHILDREN IN POVERTY Roughly one in five Ohio children lives in households at or below the federal poverty line; poverty trends track with the national average.

Ohio students children in poverty charts

Source: Annie E. Casey Foundation, Kids Count Data Center. Note: These figures display poverty estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau for children under age 18 (including children not in the K-12 system). In 2016, the 100% poverty threshold for a family of four was an income of $24,250. This definition of poverty is different than eligibility for free and reduced price meals, which is 185% of the federal poverty level.

PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS BY TYPOLOGY A majority of Ohio students reside in either urban or suburban communities. Roughly 15 percent live in rural areas and another 20 percent live in small towns.

Ohio Students by typology table

Sources: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17) and District Typologies. Note: Charter schools and their students are assigned to the typology of the district in which the school is located. E-schools are not included in a typology, since they enroll students from all areas of the state. Six independent STEM schools are included in the enrollment counts but not in the district or charter counts. Two small “island” districts are not included nor is one district that crosses the Ohio-Indiana border.

OHIO SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND TYPOLOGIES

Ohio students school districts and typology map with legend

Source: Ohio Department of Education, School District Typology.

PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS IN URBAN AREAS Students living in urban areas come from a mix of racial and ethnic backgrounds, and more than eight in ten are identified as economically disadvantaged.

Ohio student characteristics in urban areas table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (763) 318-4862 (SY 2016-17). Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the urban typologies (i.e., urban: very high poverty and urban: high poverty).

PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SUBURBAN AREAS Students from suburban areas are majority white, with modest racial and ethnic diversity. One in four suburban students are economically disadvantaged, the lowest percentage across Ohio’s typologies.

Ohio student characteristics in suburban areas table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (418) 615-0897 (SY 2016-17). Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the suburban typologies (i.e., suburban: very low poverty and suburban: low poverty).

PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SMALL TOWN AREAS The large majority of students from small towns are white and nearly half are economically disadvantaged.

Ohio student characteristics in small town areas table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the small town typologies (i.e., small town: high poverty and small town: low poverty).

PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RURAL AREAS Students from rural areas are overwhelmingly white and just under half are identified as economically disadvantaged.

Ohio student characteristics in rural areas table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the rural typologies (i.e., rural: average poverty and rural: high poverty).

OHIO’S TWENTY-FIVE LARGEST DISTRICTS BY ENROLLMENT (2016-17)

Ohio students twenty-five largest districts by enrollment table

Note: Statewide e-schools (ECOT and Ohio Virtual Academy) are considered as equivalent to a school district. This table does not include charter students as part of districts’ student population.

SCHOOL OPTIONS: PUBLIC CHARTER SCHOOLS Ohio has more than 350 charter schools, serving roughly 110,000 students. Enrollment has increased over time, though levelled in recent years.

Ohio students school options public charter table and chart

Sources: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports and Directory of Community Schools. Chart Sources Ohio Department of Education, Community School Annual Report (2015-16)and 2016-17 data are from ODE’s 9183533180.

SCHOOL OPTIONS: INTERDISTRICT OPEN ENROLLMENT Four in five Ohio districts allow interdistrict open enrollment. Almost 80,000 students open enroll, with increasing participation over time.

Ohio students school options interdistrict open enrollment chart

Sources: For SY 2002-03 to 2012-13, data from the Ohio Auditor of State, (941) 504-2160 is used (citing ODE data). For SY 2012-13 to 2016-17, enrollment counts from school funding reports are used; see, Ohio Department of Education, Traditional Public Schools Funding. The discrepancy in the data for 2012-13 may be due to differences in methods of estimating enrollment. For a listing of districts that allow open enrollment, see Ohio Department of Education, 650-666-2172.

SCHOOL OPTIONS: VOUCHERS More than 45,000 students use a voucher (aka scholarship) to attend a non-public school. Student participation has steadily increased over time.

Ohio students school options vouchers table and chart

Source: American Federation for Children, 575-936-8994. Note: For more information on each scholarship program, see Ohio Department of Education, (850) 444-8045.

SCHOOL OPTIONS: NON-PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND HOMESCHOOLING More than 200,000 students in Ohio attend a non-public school or participate in home schooling.

Ohio students school options non-public schools and homeschooling table

Sources: Ohio Department of Education, Enrollment Data: Fall Enrollment (ADM)-October 2016 Non-Public Buildings; Ohio Department of Education, Non-Chartered Non-Tax School Information; Ohio Department of Education, Facts and Figures: Ohio Prek-16 Stats 2015-16. Note: Chartered non-public schools should not be confused with public charter schools (also known as “community schools”).

Student Achievement:
National Exams
Student Achievement National Exams - Photo of students in classroom setting

NATIONAL EXAMS: NAEP 2017 Approximately two in five Ohio students reach the national standard for proficiency, just above the national average.

Ohio student achievement national exams NAEP 2017 chart

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress, fan mill. Note: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), considered the “Nation’s Report Card,” is administered to a representative sample of students in each state every two years. The exams are given in fourth and eighth grade, reading and math. NAEP allows for cross-state comparisons which are not usually possible with state-administered exams.

NATIONAL EXAMS: HOW OHIO COMPARES TO OTHER STATES Nationally, Ohio ranks between 11th and 20th in fourth and eighth grade math and reading. Ohio’s national position has typically been between 10th and 20th for the past decade.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to other states table

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The table displays Ohio’s rank on NAEP scores among all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Department of Defense schools (52 jurisdictions in all).

NATIONAL EXAMS: HOW OHIO COMPARES TO NEARBY STATES When compared to nearby states, Ohio ranks 4th out of 10 in fourth grade reading proficiency and 6th in fourth grade math proficiency.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states fourth grade reading/math charts

Source: 2017 National Assessment of Educational Progress, sinistrogyration.

NATIONAL EXAMS: HOW OHIO COMPARES TO NEARBY STATES When compared to nearby states, Ohio ranks 5th out of 10 in eighth grade reading proficiency and 2nd in eighth grade math proficiency.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states eighth grade reading/math charts

Source: 2017 National Assessment of Educational Progress, Data Explorer.

NATIONAL EXAMS: OHIO’S NAEP SCORES OVER TIME In line with the national trend, Ohio’s fourth grade NAEP results have slightly increased over the past decade.

Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time fourth grade reading/math charts

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: 419-671-8269. Note: The NAEP trend charts display scaled scores. Scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference.

NATIONAL EXAMS: OHIO’S NAEP SCORES OVER TIME In line with the national trend, Ohio’s eighth grade NAEP results have slightly increased over the past decade.

Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time eighth grade reading/math charts

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The NAEP trend charts display scaled scores. Scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference.

Student Achievement:
State Exams
Student Achievement State Exams - Photo of students in classroom setting

STATEWIDE ACHIEVEMENT IN SELECTED GRADES AND SUBJECTS 63 and 72 percent of Ohio fourth grade students reached proficient or above in English language arts (ELA) and math, respectively. A greater percentage of students are deemed proficient under state standards than NAEP (compare with section National Exams: NAEP 2017).

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement fourth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, 4582329847 (SY 2016-17).

STATEWIDE ACHIEVEMENT IN SELECTED GRADES AND SUBJECTS 50 and 55 percent of Ohio eighth grade students reached proficient or above in English language arts (ELA) and math, respectively.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement eighth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (858) 522-1018 (SY 2016-17). Note: The percentages in eighth grade math displayed do not equal 55%, as 1.7% of students reached the “advanced plus” level, a percentage that is not displayed. In nearly every other grade and subject, the percent of students in the advanced plus category is less than 1%. This achievement level is used when students excel at above grade level assessments. The minor discrepancy in the ELA proficiency rate and the sum of the percentages by achievement level is due to rounding.

STATEWIDE ACHIEVEMENT BY RACIAL OR ETHNIC SUBGROUP In fourth grade, student achievement of Ohio’s minority students lags behind their peers.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement by racial or ethnic subgroup fourth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (803) 695-1063 (SY 2016-17). Note: Other race/ethnic subgroups are omitted for display purposes. Asian/Pacific Islander students tend to perform somewhat higher than White students; multi-racial students tend to achieve at levels between the White and Hispanic subgroups.

STATEWIDE ACHIEVEMENT BY RACIAL OR ETHNIC SUBGROUP In eighth grade, student achievement of Ohio’s minority students lags behind their peers.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement by racial or ethnic subgroup eighth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: Other race/ethnic subgroups are omitted for display purposes. Asian/Pacific Islander students tend to perform somewhat higher than White students; multi-racial students tend to achieve at levels between the White and Hispanic subgroups.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGE In fourth grade, student achievement of Ohio’s economically disadvantaged students lags significantly behind their peers.

Ohio student achievement by economic disadvantage fourth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: For more on the identification of economically disadvantaged students, see section 252-216-0924.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGE In eighth grade, student achievement of Ohio’s economically disadvantaged students lags significantly behind their peers.

Ohio student achievement by economic disadvantage eighth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: For more on the identification of economically disadvantaged students, see section 973-335-9911.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY DISTRICT TYPOLOGY In fourth grade English language arts, student achievement varies widely across Ohio’s geographic regions.

Ohio student achievement by district typology fourth grade ELA chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (620) 348-0475 (SY 2016-17). Note: Averages are weighted by number of students tested in each subject by district or charter school.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY DISTRICT TYPOLOGY In fourth grade math, student achievement varies widely across Ohio’s geographic regions.

Ohio student achievement by district typology fourth grade math chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: Averages are weighted by number of students tested in each subject by district or charter school.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY DISTRICT TYPOLOGY In eighth grade English language arts, student achievement varies widely across Ohio’s geographic regions.

Ohio student achievement by district typology eighth grade ELA chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: Averages are weighted by number of students tested in each subject by district or charter school.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BY DISTRICT TYPOLOGY In eighth grade math, student achievement varies widely across Ohio’s geographic regions.

Ohio student achievement by district typology eighth grade math chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (209) 996-3126 (SY 2016-17). Note: Averages are weighted by number of students tested in each subject by district or charter school.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS YEAR PRIOR Student proficiency rates statewide increased in most math and English language arts (ELA) exams in grades 3-8.

Ohio student achievement versus year prior math and english grade 3 through 8 chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2015-16 and 2016-17). Note: Ohio administered the same assessments in 2015-16 and 2016-17.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS YEAR PRIOR Statewide student proficiency rates increased across most of Ohio’s high school end-of-course exams.

Ohio student achievement versus year prior high school end-of-course exams chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, 9853739461 (SY 2015-16 and 2016-17). Note: These proficiency rates do not include the test results of students retaking an end-of-course exam. Schools may elect to administer either the Integrated Math I and II exams or Algebra I and Geometry.

ACHIEVEMENT GAPS VERSUS YEAR PRIOR Achievement gaps in fourth grade, as measured by achieving proficiency, remained virtually unchanged compared to the prior year; gaps slightly increased in eighth grade.

Ohio student achievement gaps versus year prior fourth and eighth grade ELA and math table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2015-16 and 2016-17). Note: “Low-high income gap” refers to the difference in proficiency rates between economically disadvantaged students and those who are not identified as economically disadvantaged.

College Readiness
and Post-Secondary
Outcomes
College Readiness - Photo of students in classroom setting

COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAM: ACT SCORES Ohio’s average ACT composite score is above the national average and has trended slightly upward over the past decade.

Ohio students college readiness entrance exam ACT scores chart

Source: ACT, Profile Report: Graduation Class of 2017—Ohio; for data from earlier years, see, e.g., ACT, Profile Report: vaticinator. Note: Chart displays the average ACT composite score across the four tested subjects (English, math, reading, and science) for the graduating class of 2005 to 2017. Roughly two in three students in Ohio take the ACT exams; starting with the class of 2018, all public school students are required to have taken the ACT or SAT. Composite scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 36. To put these scores in context, admitted freshman at The Ohio State University typically score between 28 and 32.

AVERAGE ACT SCORES BY RACE/ETHNICITY Gaps in average ACT scores exist between racial/ethnic groups; disparities have not narrowed significantly over the past decade.

Ohio students college readiness average ACT scores by race chart

Source: ACT, Profile Report: 815-660-8120; for data from earlier years, see, e.g., ACT, Profile Report: (678) 953-1378. Note: For display purposes, the average ACT scores of students identifying as American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, two or more races, and those who did not respond. ACT does not report data by students’ family income status.

COLLEGE REMEDIATION RATES BY TYPOLOGY Roughly one in three incoming college students require remedial college coursework in either English or math; remediation rates vary significantly by typology.

Ohio students college readiness college remediation rates by typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Higher Education, High School to College Transition Reports: 2015 High School Graduates. Note: Data are for public school students from the graduating class of 2015 who matriculated into an Ohio two or four year public college or university in fall 2015. Averages are weighted by the number of college-going students in the class of 2015 by district or charter.

COLLEGE REMEDIATION RATES BY SUBJECT AND TYPOLOGY English remediation rates vary by typology and average 13 percent statewide.

Ohio students college readiness college remediation rates by ELA typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Higher Education, High School to College Transition Reports: 2015 High School Graduates. Note: Data are for public school students from the graduating class of 2015 who matriculated into an Ohio two or four year public college or university in fall 2015. Averages are weighted by the number of college-going students in the class of 2015 by district or charter.

COLLEGE REMEDIATION RATES BY SUBJECT AND TYPOLOGY Math remediation rates vary by typology and average 27 percent statewide.

Ohio students college readiness college remediation rates by math typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Higher Education, High School to College Transition Reports: 2015 High School Graduates. Note: Data are for public school students from the graduating class of 2015 who matriculated into an Ohio two or four year public college or university in fall 2015. Averages are weighted by the number of college-going students in the class of 2015 by district or charter.

COLLEGE ENROLLMENT RATES BY TYPOLOGY Roughly three in five students enroll in two or four year colleges or universities after graduation; student enrollment varies greatly by district typology.

Ohio students college readiness college enrollment rates by typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education (ODE), 9784908775. Note: Chart displays the percent of the high school graduating class of 2014 (both graduates and non-graduates) that matriculated into a two or four year college or university within two years of high school. Post- secondary enrollment data are from the National Student Clearinghouse and include non-Ohio colleges (for more, see ODE, 914-414-5625). Averages are weighted by the number of students in the class of 2014 by district and charter school.

COLLEGE COMPLETION RATES BY TYPOLOGY Approximately one in three Ohio students attain at least an Associate’s degree within six years of leaving high school; college completion rates are highest for students who attended high school in lower-poverty areas.

Ohio students college readiness college completion rates by typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education (ODE), School Report Cards: Download Data. Note: Data display the percent of the high school class of 2010 (both graduates and non- graduates) who earned at least an Associate’s degree within six years of high school. Post-secondary enrollment data are from the National Student Clearinghouse and include non-Ohio colleges (for more, see ODE, 2537595584). Averages are weighted by the number of students in the class of 2010 by district or charter.

Ohio’s
Educators
Ohio's Educators - Photo of teacher and students in classroom setting

PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS Ohio public schools employ just over 100,000 teachers.

Ohio educators number of teachers chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (573) 660-4758 (SY 2005-06 to 2016-17).

PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS The number of students per teacher has been roughly 16 over the past decade.

Ohio educators number of students per teacher chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, (819) 671-9959 (SY 2005-06 to 2016-17). Note: The number of students per teachers is based on student enrollment counts reported in section Public School Enrollment Trend by Race or Ethnicity.

CHARACTERISTICS OF OHIO TEACHERS About three in four teachers are female, and an overwhelming majority are white. Almost all teachers hold a Bachelor’s Degree or higher.

Ohio educators teacher characteristics table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, lamb plant (SY 2016-17).

TEACHER SALARIES BY TYPOLOGY On average, public school teachers in Ohio earn just under $60,000 per year; average salaries vary by typology.

Ohio educators teacher salaries by typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (SY 2015-16). Note: Average salaries are weighted by district enrollment; charter schools are not included in this figure.

School
Funding
School Funding - Photo student in classroom

HOW OHIO FUNDS PUBLIC SCHOOLS Ohio schools receive $23.6 billion per year, or about $13,000 per student. Most of the revenue is generated through local and state taxes.

Ohio school funding how Ohio funds public schools chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education Advanced Reports (SY 2016-17). Note: Amounts shown in billions of dollars. Other non-tax revenue includes sales of assets, fees, and investment income.

FUNDING BY DISTRICT TYPOLOGY High poverty, urban school districts receive the largest per-pupil funding amounts; small town districts tend to receive lower than average amounts.

Ohio school funding by district typology chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (SY 2015-16). Note: Average funding amounts are weighted by district enrollment. Charter schools are not included in these data, except for conversion charters (i.e., schools created by districts).

SCHOOL FUNDING COMPARED TO NEARBY STATES Ohio’s per-pupil funding is above the national average and is 2nd out of 10 nearby states.

Ohio school funding compared to nearby states chart

Source: U.S. Department of Education (USDOE), Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2013-14 (Fiscal Year 2014), Table 2. Note: The chart displays the combined per-pupil funding generated from state, local, and federal revenue sources. The data are from 2013-14, the most recently available national statistics. Due to potential differences in reporting methods, USDOE and ODE funding data may not be comparable.

PUBLIC SCHOOL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES OVER TIME Inflation-adjusted statewide revenue per student has ranged from about $11,000 to $13,000 per student; expenditures have remained largely flat over the past decade.

Ohio school funding public school revenues and expenditures over time chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2006 to 2016). Note: For FY 2006 to 2015, statewide revenue and expenditures per pupil are inflation-adjusted to 2016 dollars, using the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator. Recent discrepancies in revenues versus expenditures might be due to changes in reporting practices; note, USDOE data report consistently higher revenues per pupil relative to expenditures from FY 2012-14 for Ohio: 6019534930 (Fiscal Year 2014).

HOW SCHOOL FUNDS ARE SPENT Roughly 60 percent of education funding is spent on classroom instruction; the remainder helps to support facility construction and maintenance, transportation, administration, and other activities.

Ohio school funding how Ohio funds are spent chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education 8317637530 (SY 2016-17). Note: Amounts shown in billions of dollars. The main non-operating expenses are construction, equipment, and interest on debt; building operations include maintenance, transportation, and food service.

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